What drives the need for public sector agencies to innovate? Challenges in development, such as the changing size of local governments, the development and adoption of biotechnology, and government-owned corporations being at the crossroads, were some of the concerns discussed during Parallel Session 5A. Chaired by Professor Jin Park of the KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Korea, this session focuses on the aforementioned issues in the Philippine context.
In his presentation, "Are Local Governments in Asia Becoming 'Too Big' or 'Too Small' to Deliver Services?", Dr. Michael Tumanut of the UP National College of Public Administration and Governance argued that the evolving size of governments, the evolving size of local governments, particularly in East Asia, is having effects in the delivery of services. Despite the differences in the three countries studied, the agenda-setters are either regional or local. Meanwhile, the reform agents are instrumental in discussing territorial changes among local governments.
Meanwhile, Mr. Abraham Manalo, doctorate student at the University of the Philippines Diliman, pointed out that, with agricultural resources becoming scarce, it is becoming increasingly difficult to feed more. He asserted that modern biotechnology has the potential to contribute to food security and sustainability. However, despite regulations to enable biotechnology adoption, there remains management and political challenges that governments need to grapple with.
Lastly, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the Philippines are the subject of Mr. Al-Habbyel Yusoph's presentation, "Multiple Corporate Objectives and Performance Contracts." He lamented on the poor performance of SOEs, owing to the vagueness of their character and functions, as well as goals. He thus recommended that the government review the objectives of these SOEs.
The parallel session looks into Philippine cases of formal and informal arrangements for networking and partnerships among different stakeholders. One case examines informal coalition building among political actors to promote a specific agenda (i.e., autonomy), while the other looks into partnerships built under formalized legal and institutional frameworks (i.e., public-private partnerships or PPPs). The session is chaired by Professor Jae Sung Kwak, Associate Dean and Professor of Kyung Hee University, Korea.
Dr. Milagos Rimando of the National Economic and Development Authority – Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR) presented the prospects of the Cordilleras in a federal Philippines. To contextualize the region’s demand for autonomy, Dr. Rimando narrated the long history and development of the Cordillera people’s struggle for self-governance and autonomy. She shared the issues and challenges they experienced while engaging in alliance-building in their campaign for autonomy.
The study by Dr. Severo Madrona, Jr. proposes a framework for evaluating public-private partnerships (PPP) in the context of good
governance. Dr. Madrona also traced the history of PPP programs in the Philippines from 1992 to 2016, and analyzed the institutional and legal frameworks adopted by the Philippine government in its implementation of the PPP programs in the given period. Using the yardsticks of governance and development, Dr. Madrona enumerated a number of issues in implementing PPP programs in the country.
The parallel session tackles human resources development from two fronts: the public sector profession and the academe. It particularly looks into public service motivation and organizational citizenship of today’s public administration practitioners, on one hand, and learning and development of future practitioners, on the other. The session is chaired by Dr. Marlon Sihombing from the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, and features the following presenters: Ms. Hyo Joo Lee, Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; and Dr. Jocelyn C. Cuaresma, National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines, Philippines.
Ms. Hyo Joo Lee’s study, “Korean Public Employees’ Perceptions of Public Organizations,” assessed quantitatively how Korean public organizations maintain an organizational climate that allows for creative behavior and organizational citizenship. Drawing from the tenets of public service motivation (PSM) and stewardship theories, Lee and her colleagues explored the relationship between organizational justice (OJ) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Theoretical framework used in the study was first validated using reliability tests and component factor analysis (CFA); from hereon, a survey was designed and administered to Korea public sector employees. Results of the survey revealed that, indeed, organizational justice influences creative behavior and OCB. Public sector motivation mediates this relationship. The study is able to prove the assumptions provided by stewardship and social exchange theories, particularly the positive effects of PSM and OJ. Based on these findings, Lee recommended that public sector agencies should have mechanisms that enable transparency and information sharing. She also recommended that PSM principles should be applied in these agencies to motivate employees. Meanwhile, she suggested that future research should look into other components of OJ.
Meanwhile, Dr. Jocelyn Cuaresma walked the audience through the academic programs offered by selected Philippine higher education institutions (HEIs) that could potentially augment public service workforce in the field of climate change mitigation and adaptation. In her presentation, “Climate Change Programs of Six Higher Education Institutions: An Assessment of Accomplishments and Sustainability,” Cuaresma highlighted that HEIs have now begun to mainstream climate change in their respective school curricula. She argued that, despite limited resources, HEIs have been able to implement substantial projects and activities. So far, around 21 state colleges and universities (SUCs) and three private HEIs have established climate change centers, which are the main hub for innovations and collaboration with other stakeholders, including the government. Graduates of these SUCs can also potentially add to the human resources and social capital for climate change programs. However, despite this potential, SUCs are largely untapped at the local level. Based on the assessment, Cuaresma pushed for stronger legislation and financial support on HEIs, as well as linkages with communities. She also suggested that HEIs should be better able to assert their expertise as climate change centers. Finally, she explained that integrating disaster risk management (DRM) components—e.g., research and training—into these programs may also help boost the capacity of these HEIs.
Parallel Session 4A was chaired by Professor Soonhee Kim of the KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Korea. The session brought together three data-oriented papers, which illustrate the response of different institutions, i.e., the government and private sector, to changing policy contexts and regulatory frameworks.
In the context of increasing number of regulatory policies that address environmental problems, particularly carbon emissions, Dr. Irene Lau focused her study on how internal decision-making processes and external forces affect the response of private companies when the policy environment changes. Using a qualitative approach, Dr. Lau cited the case of two electric companies, including the regulatory measures in place, as well as the available resources, human capital, finances, and stakeholder relationship and priorities. She concluded that while one is more pro-sustainability compared to the other, the availability of resources and future predictions of a company determines their reaction upon imposition of new policies. She also concluded that there are trade-offs – the more a company invests in sustainable energy, the lower emissions, but at higher costs and vice-versa.
With the emerging concept of "livability," the second presentation of the session by Dr. Paulito Nisperos of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University in the Philippines examined its application to four (4) cities in the Ilocos Region. The study included both subjective and objective realities in looking at livability, using both indicator-based metrics and perception. Results of the study based on eight indicators of livability were matched with recommendations for inclusion in the city policy agenda for the four local government units (LGUs). In general, the author concluded that while the selected cities were able to provide basic services and facilities, the constituents or citizens still feel that the LGUs are lacking in varying degrees in some of the indicators. Indeed, he remarked that changes cannot be done overnight and some issues continue to challenge the goal of these cities to become truly livable LGUs.
Finally, Mr. Koichi Kawai of the Kanazawa University in Japan looked into agency design, an operation determining the degree of independence of an agency from political control. He also made reference to the concept of the New Economics of Organization (NEO), wherein when political parties face a high degree of uncertainty, they have a tendency to create highly independent agencies. The results of his binary logistic regression validated on of his hypothesis that ruling parties’ strength influences an agency independence in Japan, thus he suggested that there is a need to make corrections on the NEO model.
The parallel session, chaired by Professor Byeong-soo Yoon of the National Human Resources Development Institute (NHI), Korea, highlights the mechanisms by which government can engage other stakeholders, such as the private sector and non-profits, in attaining the SDG targets. The speakers for this session are: Ms. Eunju Kim, Korea Institute of Public Administration, Korea; Dr. Asima Siahaan, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia; and Dr. Paulito Nisperos and Mr. Divino Amor P. Rivera, Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University.
In her presentation, “Ensuring multi-stakeholder partnership for the SDGs: Institutional arrangements from the perspective of multi-level governance,” Ms. Eunju Kim noted the vagueness of international commitment targets such as the SDGs. According to her, ambiguities of SDGs can be both constructive and destructive: constructive because they allow more consensus-based and consultative decision making in defining targets and indicators; and destructive because the resulting overlaps and conflicting views on the importance of SDGs may delay policy formulation and implementation. Kim referred to the study being conducted by the Korean Institute of Public Administration (KIPA) on the national implementation of the SDGs. Data used to assess national implementation of SDGs in Korea was obtained through in-depth interviews with Korean officials in government agencies and was analyzed qualitatively. Results attributed the difficulty of implementing SDGs to goal ambiguity, which is largely because of the vastness of the goals. Consequently, planning for certain policies was difficult; it was not clear whether SDGs was a comprehensive international agreement or merely a follow-up of the Millennium Development Goals. Finally, some institutional arrangements between national government agencies were fragmented. Kim stressed the need to define or realign SDG priorities with the Korean context. A strategic sub-set of SDGs for Korea, as well as multi-stakeholder partnerships among ministries and other government and non-government agencies, is highly recommended.
A particular case of collaborative governance for SDGs is featured in Dr. Asima Siahaan’s study titled, “The Role of Faith-based Organizations Disaster Risk Governance: A Case Study of Mount Sinabung Eruption in Kabupaten Karo.” Here, Siahaan showcases the role of religious and faith-based organizations in post-disaster rehabilitation, which has rarely been discussed in disaster management studies. She specifically cited the case of Protestant Karo Batak Church (GBKP), one of the faith-based organizations involved in disaster response and rehabilitation post-Mount Sinabung eruption. It initially provided disaster training activities, but the goals of the organization were initially unclear. Eventually, however, the organization evolved into one of the prominent disaster-relief agencies in Kabupaten Karo, a village in Indonesia. GBKP focuses on collaboration and networking with both government and non-government institutions, and adopts an inclusive framework of disaster management and service delivery. Its programs and projects address areas such as women’s needs, provides technical support to communities, disaster awareness. Factors that made GBKP approaches effective are transparency, accountability, trust, and recognition and legitimacy. In concluding her presentation, Siahaan suggested that the government needs to provide an enabling framework for non-profits to articulate community needs in the area of disaster management and rehabilitation. This includes consideration and respect for the sociocultural and spiritual sensitivities.
Moving from the perspective of non-profits, Dr. Paulito Nisperos and Mr. Divino Amor Rivera’s paper on “Household Energy Consumption in Region I: Basis for Policy Agenda on Energy Conservation” provides baseline data and policy recommendations for possible partnerships from the government perspective. It focused on energy consumption in the Ilocos Region, Philippines, as basis for policy recommendations and articulation of energy needs in the region. This is through a Household Energy Consumption Survey (HECS), participated in by 1,133 respondents. Results showed that sociodemographic profile of the respondents was not significantly correlated with the efficiency in energy consumption among households. A bulk of the energy consumption in households was largely for basic lighting (90 percent) and entertainment (80 percent). Policy recommendations include greater focus on renewable energy, efficient energy consumption, and engineering innovations.
Parallel Session 3B tackled challenges associated with developing skills and competencies of civil servants to address welfare, information-sharing, and socio-cultural needs of the citizens they serve. Experiences from Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia were particularly discussed. Professor Jungin Kim of the Department of Public Administration, University of Suwon, Korea, chaired the session.
For his presentation, Prof. Dongwook Kim posed the question on whether big data can help governments improve policy design and service delivery. To illustrate, he shared good practices based on Big Data analysis, such as SMS alarm services for child immunization, a real-time parking lot information service, people-customized library, and experiences from Namyangju City. He highlighted that to utilize big data efficiently for policy-making, it is important to have good leadership, vision and policy plan. Another is having collaborative governance – between central and local government, public and private sectors and share data. Furthermore, the public sector should employ people with big data skills and expertise, which can be utilized for data collection and sharing and be able to handle information, knowing the implications of data privacy and security.
Dr. Kim’s presentation was supplemented by his co-author, Dr. Hyun Deok Choi, who is also the Deputy Mayor of the City of Namyangju. He elaborated on the adjustment of public transport routes, job matching and health care services and indexing in the local government unit.
Ms. Rachman of Indonesia’s National Institute for Public Administration highlighted the richness of diversity of her country in terms of ethnicity, religious affiliation and culture. In particular, she cited discrimination in the provision of public services, particularly in healthcare, education and administrative services. To address this, she raised that there should be a standard of social-cultural competency, apart from the technical and managerial aspects. She also proposed that public sector agencies should assess, observe and develop approaches for social-cultural competency, which encompasses the skills, knowledge and attitude of service providers. However, she cited some challenges – from human resources, budget, willingness of the organization leader, commitment, and monitoring and evaluation – which need to be overcome to be able to really develop effective social-cultural competency.
In the last presentation of the session, perception and experience of civil servants on their job performance culture was centerpiece of the study of Mr. Giang Vinh Hoang of the National Academy of Public Administration of Vietnam. Through Grounded Theory (GT) approach, and use of open, axial and selective coding techniques, Mr. Hoang found out that civil servants’ job performance culture revolve around inertness, centralization of authority, responsiveness, and manipulation. He emphasized that understanding these factors can help managers to understand the situation and develop solutions and reforms – particularly by encouraging good factors and discouraging bad ones.
Presentations in Parallel Session 3A dealt with dynamic political landscapes at the micro-level (e.g., student elections) and at the national level (e.g., ageing societies, domestic abuse, and political turbulence), all of which require public administration reforms. Professor Naomi Aoki of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, chaired the session. Professor Akio Kamiko of Ritsumeikan University, Japan; Dr. Pairote Pathranarakul and his colleagues from the National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand; Mr. Jonald F. Carrera of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, Philippines; and Mr. Arius Lauren Raposas of EROPA Secretariat, delivered their presentations in this session.
Prof. Akio Kamiko's presentation discussed the Japan’s issue on ageing of population and the reduction of the number of municipalities in from over 3,000 to a little more than 1,700 in just a dozen of years. This means that the scale of democracy was pushed up. However, in rural areas where population reduction is especially conspicuous, this reduction in number of municipalities may not have led to the increased size of democracy in the longer term.
Meanwhile, Dr. Pairote Pathranarakul and his colleagues introduced the audience to the new nationwide development model called “Thailand 4.0.” This model aimed to ensure sustainability and global competitiveness of the country. The essential elements of this agenda are focused on a “sustainable growth and development” with long-term vision on security, prosperity, and sustainability. Pairote, et al indicated that, to become successful with this agenda of Thailand 4.0 and to comply with the UN’s SDGs of the new millennium, there are certain forms and patterns of governance that the Thai government needs to comply with.
Meanwhile, Mr. Jonald Carrera's study determined the current situation of violence against women cases (VAWC) in the City of San Fernando, La Union using qualitative-quantitative research design. Findings showed that current situation of VAWC in the City of San Fernando includes cases fall both in economic and physical abuse. The researcher concluded that victims were deprived of financial support due to unwarranted circumstances; provisions of VAWC law are given full attention for stricter compliance; and the intervention program gives emphasis on the Commission’s mandate in addressing the needs of the victims.
Finally, Mr. Arius Raposas' study, mainly a commentary on student elections in the University of the Philippines, analyzed how Filipino democracy works in the national or the local scale through understanding student politics. The findings of the research observed that key factors other than politics (such as culture and social media) influence leadership formation in schools, colleges, and universities.
The second parallel session under the theme of “Networks and Partnerships: Expanding and Strengthening Collaboration in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals” was moderated by Dean Min Park of the George Mason University in Korea. It brought together three papers presenting types of partnership methods that can be considered in achieving the SDGs.
In the first presentation for the session, Dr. Seong Ju Kang of the Ministry of Science and ICT of Korea cited the adoption of technological tools to enhance public service. The context of Korea provided for participation and collaboration between developed and developing countries through the enabling environment established by its IT policy, industrial policy, and telecom policy. Applying these in implementing SDGs, he highlighted factors to be considered – securing support from both citizens and leadership, human resources, technological capacity by institution building, securing financial resources, and use of experiences and knowledge. Lastly, he shared the National Informatization Assessment Tool (NIAT), a policy design tool which can be utilized in helping to systematically shape action to achieve the SDGs.
Ms. Krismiyati Tasrin shared the case of Bandung City in Indonesia in terms of how the Multi-Stakeholders Partnership (MSP) Model applied in the local government unit. She pointed out the roles of local governments, academia, private sectors and civil society in promoting innovation. The result of her study points out to the preqrequisites for the successful implementation of the MSP model based on the strengths and weaknesses of the existing model in Bandung City, Indonesia. With the case, she recommends that involved stakeholders should have an existing agreement – indicating the roles and responsibilities of each, and also to have a good leadership who can initiate innovative practices and collaborate with other stakeholders.
Dr. Masao Kikuchi explored the concept of Inter Municipal Collaboration (IMC) and the basic conditions by which it can exist among municipalities in Japan. He examined four areas through Binary Logistic Regression based on official statistics. Results of the study showed that administrative capacity and institutional setting have positive impact to promote IMC compared to fiscal condition and demographic patterns, particularly the elderly. He mentioned that IMC may have something to do with municipal amalgamation as a strategic choice.
Building a workforce of public servants that is ready to take on today's complex challenges is the focus of presentations in Parallel Session 2B. In particular, they reviewed civil service reforms undertaken by the governments of the Philippines and Hong Kong SAR, and strategies for enhancing social capital for provision of public services for the elderly. Professor M. Jae Moon of Yonsei University, Korea, chaired the session. Ms. Soon Eun Kim of Seoul National University, Korea; Ms. Nimfa S. Villaroman of the City Government of Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, Philippines; and Dr. Peter K.W. Fong of the Hong Kong Public Administration Association, served as presenters.
In his study, "Healthy Aging and Social Capital: An Analysis of the Effect of Social Capital Using Multi-level Modeling," Prof. Kim used multi-level analysis to measure the effect of local-level social capital on individual health. The study validated previous relevant literatures on understanding individual-level social capital and local-level social capital on the health of the ageing population. In conclusion, the study reiterated that it is necessary to support elderly individual to accumulate social capital for the health of the elderly.
Meanwhile, Ms. Nimfa Villaroman analyzed the performance of the employees in three (3) city local government units in Nueva Ecija in the delivery of basic services using the Strategic Performance Management System framework. Specifically, the study gauged performance in the fields of health, social welfare, infrastructure, agriculture and environment. The study also identified problems encountered by the employees in the delivery of these services. Villaroman suggested that future studies on the performance of employees from the national agencies using the SPMS are expected to identify the flaws of the system.
Finally, in the paper, "A Review of the Civil Service Reform in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Lessons for Asian Public Policymakers," Dr. Peter Fong analyzed the rationales, objectives, principles, processes, and initiatives of the civil service reform undertaken by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Government. The paper evaluated issues, changes, outcomes, goal achievements, and implications to the public service. It concluded with lessons learned form the Hong Kong experience and recommendations of critical success factors for other Asian public policy makers who wish to launch new reforms to improve civil service productivities in their own political and administrative jurisdictions.
This parallel session reverts to sociocultural norms, local government budgeting, and the judiciary as mechanisms for initiating public sector reforms. Professor Daeyong Choi, Visiting Professor at the KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Korea, chaired the said session. It features presentations of scholars from Korea and the Philippines, each country having its own experience of successes and challenges in the aforementioned fields. Speakers were: Professor Soonhee Kim, also from the KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Korea; Mr. Alder Delloro, doctorate student at the National College of Public Administration and Governance, Philippines; and Ms. Cynthia Grace Valdez from Quirino State University, Philippines.
Professor Soonhee Kim examined the experience of local governments in South Korea in their implementation of participatory budgeting, specifically its impacts on the trust between citizens and the government. The findings of the study indicate that there is a positive association between participants’ knowledge of the budget and the enhancement of mutual trust between the citizens and government officials. She concluded that participatory budget is a valuable venue to engage the involvement of citizens in the policy making process.
Ms. Cynthia Grace Tomas-Valdez presented the findings of their study on the indigenous farming practices of the Bugkalots, an indigenous group in Northern Philippines. The Bugkalots’ farming practices play a vital role in keeping their community together and in the shaping of the traditional laws followed in their villages. The Bugkalots’ traditional laws are kept mostly pertain to the use and protection of their natural resources.
The study of Mr. Alder Delloro, a practicing lawyer, looks into the role of the judiciary in the promotion of climate change justice in the Philippines. Mr. Delloro examines how climate change litigation in the Philippines has been shaping through the judiciary’s jurisprudential pronouncements and promulgation of landmark cases involving environmental laws.